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Between 1983 and 1998 there were 5 cases of Wilms' tumour associated with a MCDK in the United States,[sup.2]-[sup.4] resulting in an estimated risk of 0.03% to 0.1%.[sup.2,3]
A review of all published cohort studies of MCDK from 1986 to 2004 suggests the risk of Wilms' tumour developing in MCDK is nil.[sup.5]
Case reports suggest MCDK can be associated with hypertension.
In some cases, hypertension has been cured with nephrectomy of the MCDK, even if the kidney has shown involution on ultrasound, suggesting MCDK can be the primary etiology.[sup.7]
Hypertension can develop following remote nephrectomy of the MCDK, suggesting an abnormal contralateral kidney may be the etiology.[sup.8]
A review of published cohort studies of MCDK suggested the risk developing hypertension was no higher than that of the general pediatric population.[sup.9]
For example, multicystic kidneys erroneously called MCDKs were proven to be examples of GCKD instead.
A MCDK is usually accompanied by both compensatory hypertrophy and function of the opposite kidney.
A MCDK is estimated to occur in approximately 1 in 4 000 live births.
Special investigations to exclude associated abnormalities in the contralateral kidney, like hypodysplasia, PUJO or VUR are necessary because they occur in 30 - 51% of patients with a MCDK. (2) There is no evidence that a MCDK is associated with a risk of malignancy.
Unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK): long-term outcomes.
* Associated abnormalities in the contralateral kidney occur in 30 - 51% of patients with a MCDK.
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