Reliability and validity analyses were conducted using SPSS 22 to identify the underlying item structure and concurrent validity with the MCKAS
After the list was established, a cover letter, the demographic questionnaire, BIDR, MEIM, COBRAS, and MCKAS
were mailed to the individuals on the list.
Individuals interested in participating were directed to an address on the World Wide Web (WWW) where they could access the online survey that included SRES, BIDR, MCKAS
, MEIM, and a demographic information form.
Kocarek, Talbot, Batka, and Anderson (2001) reported coefficient alpha reliabilities for the MCKAS
(which they referred to as the MCAS) Knowledge and Awareness subscales of .
Initial investigations examining the psychometric properties of the MCKAS
reported coefficient alphas of .
is one of the most commonly used instruments to assess multicultural competence (Dunn, Smith, & Montoya, 2006) and is recommended, among other surveys, as a classroom tool as a pre-post measure to determine growth in cultural awareness (Jones et al.
All the students present in class the day of the study agreed to participate and received an informed consent form/information sheet, demographic questionnaire, the SOCCS, and the MCKAS
01; and the Knowledge subscale correlated strongest with the MCKAS
Knowledge subscale, r(312) = .
Two hierarchical multiple regression analyses were then conducted using the Knowledge and Awareness subscales of the MCKAS
as criterion variables.
Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and multiple regression were the two primary statistical methods used to explore students' scores on both the MCKAS
and SOCCS (dependent variables).
BIDR = Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding; MEN = Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure; SRES = Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale; MCKAS
= Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale.
A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was then conducted using the MCKAS
full-scale scores as the criterion variable.