To standardize the MCKAS
, researchers used a sample comprising 287 graduate students and 238 professionals in the field of either counseling or counseling psychology.
The complete measure (MCCAA and MCKAS
) was subsequently piloted among mental health practitioners at five agencies in the central Virginia community.
The present study found no correlation between social desirability (measured by BIDR) and MCC (measured by MCKAS
However, as noted previously, the MCKAS
has been found to be negatively related to social desirability (Constantine et al., 2001; Ponterotto et al., 2002).
Kocarek, Talbot, Batka, and Anderson (2001) reported coefficient alpha reliabilities for the MCKAS
(which they referred to as the MCAS) Knowledge and Awareness subscales of .91 and .83, respectively, and an alpha of .91 for the total score.
Subsequently, however, the MCKAS
reported the two factors of Knowledge and Awareness, and Skills was eliminated because Ponterotto et al.
. The MCKAS
is a 32-item self-rating scale that assesses two factors: Multicultural Knowledge/Awareness and Multicultural Skills.
(Ponterotto et al., 2002) was used to validate the SOCCS's Knowledge subscale.
The packets included the background information questionnaire, the MCSDS-S, SII, M-GUDS-S, and MCKAS
. The order of presentation of the measures was counterbalanced in the research packets to control for order effects.
The criterion variables were the two MCKAS
Finally, the 32-item Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS
, a revision of the MCAS: B; see Ponterotto, Gretchen, Utsey, Rieger, & Austin, 2002) evaluates therapist self-reported competence in Multicultural Knowledge (e.g., "I am aware of institutional barriers which may inhibit minorities from using mental health services") and Multicultural Awareness (e.g., "I believe all clients should maintain direct eye contact during counseling").
Finally, we recommend that the inventory name be changed from the Multicultural Counseling Awareness Scale (MCAS) to the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS