Taking into consideration those differences, one can affirm that using the same traditional solutions to form groups in MCSCL environments without considering their particularities could cause many problems such as, disunion of groups (e.
But, the objective of using this RQ is to identify which personal characteristics are more used and more appropriate for MCSCL context, and how they are combined with the other grouping criteria (learners' behaviours and contextual information).
This RQ aims to identify the different considered learners' behaviours, and how the proposed MCSCL systems obtain, evaluate, and store this behavioural data.
While MCSCL environments are known by their context awareness, the learning groups can be properly formed according to different context information.
RQ4: How the dynamic grouping can be supported in MCSCL environments?
MCSCL activities are generally exhibited to several problems that may lead to stop the collaboration between learners at any moment.
Therefore, this RQ serves to identify the different solutions proposed for ensuring the two forms of dynamic formation of MCSCL groups.
In MCSCL environments, the grouping algorithms do not only serve to use some stored learners' data to form the groups, but it should capture and evaluate the learners' behaviours, and interact with different components of the system to get instantaneous context information.
However, modelling the different components of MCSCL systems (especially the human behaviours) represents another difficult challenge.
The resulting search string is as follows: (Collaborative learning OR MCSCL OR CSCL OR Mobile learning OR Ubiquitous learning OR Pervasive learning) AND (Group OR Team OR Cluster OR Set OR Community OR Assembly) AND (Formation OR Construction OR Composition OR Organization OR Constitution OR Creation OR Building OR Assigning).
For instance, in the case of the "pedagogical skills in collaborative learning" indicator, the teacher is assigned values on four dimensions: support of group discussions, group supervision, providing feedback on results, completion of MCSCL activity and integration of MCSCL activity within the lesson.
The adoption of pedagogical skills begins when the "workshop on MCSCL for teachers" ends, around the 10th or 11th week of intervention.