Moreover, a significant difference was revealed among MDAG individuals and HS (p=0.001).
Serum levels of MMP-9 were significantly different in MDAG patients compared to HS (p=0.013).
We found an association between antiCCP/RF immunoglobulin M levels and Cld-5 in MDAG patients based on DAS28 scores.
(34) In this regard, we found higher Cld-5 and NSP levels in MDAG patients compared to HDAG individuals.
After exposure to inflammatory stimuli, endothelial cells in virtually every tissue express plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.35 In our previous study, we demonstrated increased von Willebrand factor and Cld-5.36 It is also important to note higher levels of Cld-5, MMP-9, and anti-CCP in MDAG individuals relative to other RA subgroups.
However, higher levels of Cld-5, MMP-9, and NSP were also observed in patients with MDAG. Nevertheless, how and why this impairment occurs is not fully understood, and more data regarding NSP, MMP, and claudin expression in plasma are warranted.