We are grateful to the MDIFW for providing the data used in this analysis.
MDIFW (MAINE DEPARTMENT OF INLAND FISHERIES AND WILDLIFE).
comm.), and these WMDs represent the core of Maine's moose population (MDIFW 2013).
Age was determined from cementum annuli counts on cross-sectioned canines (Sergeant and Pimlott 1959) performed by MDIFW biologists.
MDIFW determines bull composition by analyzing the age of harvested animals, sightings by deer and moose hunters, and more recently aerial surveys (Kantar and Cumberland 2013).
Northern WMDs with the highest moose density based on hunter sighting rates, highest harvest rates, and permit allocations (MDIFW data) were prioritized for the double-count surveys.
While the amount of browse available during the growing season has declined since the 1990s (MDIFW data), it is unlikely that the moose population is limited by quantity or quality of habitat.
Reliable measures of abundance are critical to management of moose given their value to multiple stakeholders and the MDIFW mandate to manage species for the good of all Maine citizens.
We would like to thank the following for their great assistance in making this manuscript possible: Cedric Alexander, VFWD; Kristine Rines, NHFG; Lee Kantar, MDIFW
; Ed Reed and Chuck Dente, NYDC, Bureau of Wildlife; Howard Kilpatrick and Andrew Labonte, CDEP; Sonja Christensen and Dave Scarpitti, MDFW; Lori Gibson, RIDFW; Carrol Condolf, NJDFW; and Bret Wallingford, Pennsylvania Game Commission.
Farmers and MDIFW personnel have documented >40 moose in a single field (R.
Techniques to minimize and prevent wildlife damage typically follow a step-down approach (MDIFW Administrative Nuisance Policy J1.6) incorporating deterrents, repellents, hazing (i.e., cracker shells, trained domestic dogs), and fencing.
10105-1), the MDIFW Commissioner has the authority to issue permits for the taking of wildlife, including controlled hunts.