A total population of about 12 animals estimated in 17 field surveys was distributed over an area of 28.60 [km.sup.2] in different localities of MDNP. Population density of the study area was recorded as 0.42 bear/[km.sup.2] (Table 2), maximum (0.45 bear/[km.sup.2]) at Loser zone followed by Sardari (0.43 bear/[km.sup.2]) while least (0.37 bear/[km.sup.2]) population density noted at Phulawai zone (Table 1).
North-eastern boundary of MDNP is connected with Deosai National Park.
Location map of study area (MDNP) showing different study zones.
Estimated populations of Brown bear at different elevation ranges in MDNP during 2011-2012.
Comparison of Himalayan brown bear population in different localities of MDNP during study period Zone Locality Mean Area elevation surveyed ([km.sup.2]) Phulawai Doga 2480 2.9 Saonarr 2490 2.1 Hanthi 2540 3.2 Total 8.2 Sardari Helmet 2590 3.9 Karimabad 2530 2.6 Taobut 3280 2.8 Total 9.3 Loser Gagai 3330 2.1 Ratta 2990 3 Pani Dudhegai 3450 2.8 Qamri 3380 3.2 Total 11.1 Zone Locality Habitat conditions Phulawai Doga Gentle slopes usually thickly vegetated with Pinus spp., Taxus wallichiana, Arnebia benthamii, Valeriana jatamansi, Berberis lycium.
A total of seven cases were eliminated from the sampling pool (N=1,207) recruited by the MDNP study.
Based on the drug utilization outcomes measured in the study without controlling for other covariates, the MDNP intervention is associated with decreased pharmaceutical resource utilization per hospitalization episode.
After adjusting for patients' demographic and clinical factors (see Table 4), the patients who received the MDNP intervention consistently had less drug and antibiotic days, spent less on antibiotics alone and on overall drug costs, and were less likely to incur high drug costs.
The results imply that the effect of the MDNP intervention on drug utilization was only modest when individual LOS was adjusted.
While decreased drug costs were strongly associated with shorter LOS, it is reasonable to argue that the effective drug therapy prescribed and managed by the MDNP team was part of the cause of the reduction in LOS.
Investigators from the initial MDNP study published several other significant findings associated with the MDNP model.
Briefly, the MDNP team intervention, which integrated hospitalist medical director, NPs, and multidisciplinary care management, produced a conservative estimate of $978 net cost saving per patient during the index hospital stay (Cowan et al., 2006; Ettner et al., 2006).