Infections of MDROs
cause about 2,000,000 illnesses and 23,000 deaths annually in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
48%, respectively), but bed-bound residents were more likely to be MDRO
colonized, compared with ambulatory residents (59% vs.
A six-month prospective study in an outpatient dialysis unit identified that 16% of the 85 chronic HD patients were colonized with MDROs
(Pop-Vicas, Strom, Stanley, & D'Agata, 2008).
As shown in Figure 1, there was no statistically difference in MDRO
isolation rate among different types of specimens, infections or bacteria.
A number of studies have shown that improvements in hand hygiene are associated with lower healthcare-associated infection rates, and/or reductions in MDRO
transmission and acquisition.
Several strategies have been documented in the literature as being successful in the prevention and control of MDRO
2007), it is also possible that reinstatement may play a role when NCR or NCR with MDRO
fails to produce positive clinical effects if reinforcement stimuli acquire discriminative properties.
The current knowledge and the rapid trend of MDRO
put our anxiety to the new level so far.
The Department of Health and Human Services (2007) estimates that MDRO
treatment can cost $6,000$30,000 per episode.
While a successful MDRO
prevention and control program will typically require a combination of interventions, there are several overarching strategies that hospitals must address.
Infections by these MDRO
lead to prolonged hospitalization, increased mortality, morbidity and cost of treatment.
produced markedly higher reinforcement rates than DRO for all subjects.