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In this setting, its use could not only cause unwanted adverse effects without clear benefit to the patient, but could contribute to the development of further resistance by exposing the patient to an inadequate regimen.'51 There is evidence, however, to support the use of high-dose INH in patients with MDRTB with a known inhA mutation.
(5) WHO estimated that in Brazil 1.5% of new TB cases and 8.0% of retreatment cases in 2017 were MDRTB. (5) Primary resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin in regional data from Brazil in 2007 was 1.4%.
The quality of evidence for the effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis for child contacts of MDRTB patients was thus assessed to be moderate (Table 2).
Previous publications are limited to case reports and subanalyses of populations consisting of adults and children with pulmonary MDRTB. [ 10-12] A series from Cape Town, SA, potentially represents the largest case series of paediatric MDR-TB to date.
This is of particular reference to TB endemic areas like India where there is high prevalence of MDRTB of around 3% in new cases and 12-18% in old treated cases.
MDRTB and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are severe global public health threats [3, 5, 6].
The World Health Organization approved the use of molecular line-probe assays (LiPAs) for diagnosis of MDRTB in 2008 .
Although all the MDRTB patients belonged to Han patients, the difference in the prevalence of MDR-TB between Han and minority patients was not significant (Table 3), which was more likely to be attributed to small sample size.
The World Health Organization (WHO) declared multi-drug resistant TB (MDRTB), defined as Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin, a public health crisis in 2013.
MDRTB treatment requires specialized care, requires patients to endure 2 years of toxic and difficult to tolerate second-line anti-TB drugs, and even under the best circumstances cure is uncertain, especially if additional resistance exists to second-line drugs.
TB cases coinfected with HIV were around 1.1 million with an estimated 480,000 new cases of MDRTB. This report indicates the need to intensify the efforts in TB control and to give access to high-quality care for all TB patients .
As a result, multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) has become one of the most important challenges in the control of TB worldwide.6
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