The amplitude of MECG is at least 10 times larger than that of FECG, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the MECG is less than unity .
In our experiment, to extract the QRS of the MECG and FECG from online Physionet databases , we used (i) Abdominal and Direct Fetal Electrocardiogram Database (adfecgdb) which provides abdominal ECG recordings (channels 2 to 5) for 5 minutes each from five different subjects during the 3841-week gestation period [39, 40].
They consider the unknown FECG signal, MECG, and other interference signals as source signals and the measured signals from the maternal abdomen and chest as mixed signals (measured signals).
The FECG and MECG are both super-Gaussian signals in general.
The difficulty arises in detecting the fetal QRS complexes from the AECG signal, which consists of both the MECG
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Source signals include maternal electrocardiogram (MECG
), fetal electrocardiogram (FECG), breathing artifact, electrode artifact, and two kinds of noises.
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Furthermore, the signal of interest, that is, the fECG, is only one (weak) component of the ADS mixture; other (disturbing) signals with higher power that also exist are the electromyogram (EMG) of the abdominal muscles, the electrohysterogram (EHG), the maternal ECG (mECG
), the baseline wander basically due to the maternal respiration, and the power line interference (PLI).
Multiple noise sources are also present in abdominally measured signals, the most noticable of which are the maternal electrocardiogram (mECG
) and electromyographic signals from the abdominal muscles .