MEQRMeasure Equivalent to a Quantitative Restriction
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The law is slightly more generous for MEQRs, which may be justified in accordance with Article 36, or one of the additional derogations cited in the leading case of Cassis de Dijon: Obstacles to movement within the Community resulting from disparities between the national laws relating to the marketing [of goods] must be accepted [only] in so far as those provisions may be recognized as being necessary in order to satisfy mandatory requirements relating in particular to the effectiveness of fiscal supervision, the protection of public health, the fairness of commercial transactions and the defence of the consumer.
In the German Beer case, the Commission challenged two German laws, alleging they were illegal MEQRs that blocked imports from the German beer market.
The language of Article XI:1 is broad and captures both explicit quantitative restrictions and MEQRs, which are called "non-tariff barriers" in GATT jurisprudence.