mGBPs are highly induced via IFN[gamma] after infection and are localized in intracellular vesicle-like structures.
IFN[gamma]-Induced Expression of mGBPs Is Strikingly Reduced in [LT[beta]R.sup.-/-] Animals.
[LT[beta]R.sup.-/-] mice fail to induce IFN[gamma], and mGBPs are subsequently not upregulated, leading to a breakdown of the antitoxoplasma immune response.
In MGBP surgery, a long gastric tube was created approximately 1.5 cm to the left of the lesser curvature from the antrum to the angle of His.
One week later, weight showed a gradual increase except that in RYGB group and MGBP group, and weight in RYGB group was significantly lower than MGBP group (P < 0.05).
In 2nd week after operation, the average weight in RYBG, SG, and MGBP groups was significantly lower than that in the NC and SO groups, and weight loss in RYBG group was the greatest (P < 0.01).
The weight was NC, SO > SG, RYG, MGBP > TG (P < 0.01) on the 10th day after operation, NC, SO > SG, RYGB > TG, MGBP (P < 0.05) in the 2nd week after operation, and NC, SO > SG, RYGB, MGBP (P < 0.01), SG, RYGB, MGBP > TG (P < 0.01) in the 5th week after operation (Figure 1(d)).
After operation, ghrelin levels in RYGB and MGBP groups significantly increased, but ghrelin levels in SG group only showed a significant increase in 12th week after operation.
Obestatin levels only significantly increased after operation in MGBP group (P < 0.01).
In GK rats before operation, ghrelin plasma level in MGBP group was lower than that in NC group, while there was no difference among other groups.
However, in obese rats, weigh loss in RYGBP group was similar to that in MGBP group, but larger than that in SG group.