district court in Phoenix denied the Apache Survival Coalition's request for a preliminary injunction and a temporary restraining order for the MGIO project.
Efforts to quantify the dollar transaction costs associated with the MGIO environmental conflict have been difficult.
The Forest Service, Fish and Wildlife Service, the University of Arizona, and the opponents of the MGIO did not draw upon these models of conflict resolution nor the siting experiences of other public and private organizations.
Both proponents and opponents used this biological uncertainty to build their cases for or against the MGIO, effectively "capturing" federal employees and their agencies in this conflict.
The MGIO case would seem to support these last two findings; it was the very siting of the observatory on Mount Graham that attracted the human sponsorship and resources to list the MGRS as endangered.
See Rhodes and Wilson (1991) for a more detailed chronology of the MGIO siting process.
11 Although the opposition to the MGIO project focused most of its efforts on the MGRS, it soon became clear that cutting old-growth trees, disturbing a unique ecosystem, and limiting access to the summit for hikers and hunters were equally important issues.
13 The summit of Emerald Peak is prime MGRS habitat yet the 20-24 acres for the MGIO represented less than 1 percent of the squirrel's total habitat on the mountain (U.