MGSHMaple Grove Senior High (Maple Grove, Minnesota, USA)
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Modifications in mitochondrial dynamics lead to structural changes in cristae formation and the assembly of electron transport complexes, compromising bioenergetics and causing calcium dyshomeostasis, increased oxidative stress (consumption of mGSH), mitochondrial DNA damage, and synaptic dysfunction [28-30].
The pro-oxidative conditions likely induced by Cu, together with the enrichment of cholesterol that reduces mGSH levels, produce CL peroxidation; however, it appears that the level of damage is insufficient to produce a significant stimulation of apoptosome formation and subsequent activation of the caspase-3 pathway [73].
Our work demonstrates that dietary supplementation with trace amounts of inorganic Cu in drinking water + Cho supplementation in solid food causes oxidative stress in brain cortex and hippocampus by depletion of mGSH in an inverse Cho/Pi-dependent fashion; CL peroxidation and stimulation of the remodeling route; major alterations in mitochondrial membrane integrity and fluidity; and a higher A[beta] (1-42)/(140) ratio as a biomarker of neurodegeneration.