Furthermore, prenatal exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles was found to increase the level of normetanephrine, another NE metabolite, in the hippocampus of mouse offspring, as well as to decrease the MHPG
level in the hypothalamus and cerebellum; however, it did not affect the NE level in any of the brain regions examined .
Effects of Acupuncture on NE and MHPG Levels in the CeA.
Additionally, acupuncture at PC6 inhibited the oversecretion of plasma CORT and reduced the increased levels of amygdaloid NE and MHPG following ARS.
The concentration of NA, MHPG, 5-HT and 5-HIAA was quantified electrochemically using a BAS LC-4C amperometric detector and an LC-4A glassy carbon transducer cell (Bionalytical Systems, Inc.).
Results on NA, MHPG, 5-HT, 5-HIAA levels, noradrenergic and serotonergic activity, and corticosterone levels were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by the Least Significant Difference (LSD) post hoc test; a p value [less than or equal to] 5% was considered significant.
Participants who received folic acid also experienced a reduction in plasma MHPG
. A review subsequent to the treatment period found that hot flashes returned in all subjects who had experienced improvement when supplementing with folic acid.
As these mutations affect synthesis of both serotonin and the catecholamines, concentrations of 5HIAA, HVA, and MHPG
are, in general, significantly decreased in CSF (14).
In elderly rats there is a decrease in noradrenaline; however, there is a compensatory increase in the ratio of its metabolite, 3-methoxy, 4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG
), to noradrenaline, which might suggest that the remaining noradrenergic neurons have become hyperactive (Cransac, Peyrin, Cottet-Emard, Farhat, Pequignot & Reber, 1996).
The researchers measured concentrations of a norepinephrine by-product, MHPG
, in urine samples obtained over a 24-hour period from 20 adults hospitalized for severe depression.
Kosten, en estudios enfocados a la funcion de los ejes tiroideos y adrenales, ha encontrado mas metabolitos (MHPG
) en la orina y en sangre de pacientes con TEPT que en controles con diagnosticos confirmados de depresion mayor y esquizofrenia, con las que ha llegado a obtener diferencias estadisticamente significativas (23).
The neurotransmitter metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 3-methoxy4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG
) in CSF and 5-HIAA, HVA, and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) in urine were measured with HPLC and electrochemical detection, and the metabolites 3-o-methyldopa and L-dopa in CSF and dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine in urine were measured with HPLC and fluorometric detection.
HVA, VMA, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (MHPG
), 3-methoxytyramine (MT), ethylene diamine, 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DOMA), vanillin (VAN), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), normetanephrine (NM), 3-methoxytyrosine (3MTyr), dopamine (DA), E, NE, synephrine (Syn), hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPAA), phenylacetic acid (PAA), tyramine (Tyr), N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), N-succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl)-cyclohexane-l-carboxylate (SMCC), and N-succinimidyl-S-acetylthioglycolic acid (SATA) were purchased from Sigma (St.