As the Blob diminished, an ENSO event occurred in 2016, and the combination created an unprecedented warm water anomaly that lasted 3 years, during which there were multiple MHWs. A broad spectrum of taxa was impacted by these events, including 34 species listed by Cavole et al.
Characterization of MHWs followed standardized methods (Hobday et al.
Daily SST data were used to delineate MHWs, and multiple occurred each year from 2013 to 2018 in central and southern California, except at HMS in 2013 (Table 1); these findings extend the warm water event through 2018.
Regional case studies have shown how MHWs can devastate coral reefs, kelp forests, and seagrass meadows, and cause mass die-offs of fish, lobsters, birds, and mammals if the food web is disrupted.
By impacting ecosystem goods and services, such as fisheries landings and biogeochemical processes, MHWs can also have major socioeconomic and political ramifications.
The researchers quantified trends and attributes of MHWs across all ocean basins and examined their biological impacts from species to ecosystems.
Simulated multimodel mean duration of MHWs under (left) 2[degrees]C global warming and (right) 3.5[degrees]C global warming.
Using satellite observations, we show that the number of MHW days anywhere in the surface ocean has doubled over the 1982-2016 period.
MHWs were then identified in all model experiments using the Hobday et al.
In 2016, both the NA and BSGA regions experienced their most intense MHWs across the 35year satellite SST record.
Based on remotely sensed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) available back to 1982, and application of the MHW definition developed by Hobday et al.
Given the atmospheric priming of the MHW, it is of interest to determine whether there is an anthropogenic signal behind the setup, and the resulting SST signature.