(14) Much of the reason for this routine omission and lack of prominence in major joint LVC exercises is that military information support operations (MISO, formerly known as psychological operations), public affairs, electronic warfare (EW), cyber warfare, military deception (MILDEC), special technical operations, and other information-related capabilities (IRC) (15) are difficult to simulate over a relevant exercise time horizon.
(20) Therefore, increasing the effectiveness of joint operations in this mission area would certainly require improved MISO, EW, cyber, and MILDEC capabilities and authorities at all levels of war.
According to JP 3-13.4, Military Deception, short of perfidy, the intent of MILDEC is the execution of actions "to deliberately mislead adversary decision makers as to friendly military capabilities, intentions, and operations." (3) Deception has been a recognized component of war for millennia; nearly 2,500 years ago, Chinese military strategist Sun Tzu stated "all warfare is based on deception." (4) In modern times, two classic examples of military deception are (1) Operation Mincemeat, the World War II deception strategy that convinced the Germans that the Allies were preparing to invade Greece instead of Italy, and (2) a perfectly executed ruse by the Egyptians and Syrians giving the appearance of a military exercise.
While MILDEC is customarily a wartime mission, PSYOP is conducted during all phases of military operations, including peacetime, and is authorized under Title 10, section 167 of the US Code, which allows the Department of Defense (DOD) to conduct PSYOP as part of special operations campaigns.
(27) While not mentioned as a supporting capability of Strategic Communication (SC), the role of Military Deception (MILDEC
) should also be understood in relation to PA and SC.
Involvement of journalists in MILDEC
will not be addressed in this paper, except to state that journalists whose reporting activities are used as deceptive informational tools may be viewed as directly supporting this military mission and lose their protective status under a U.S.
The Army's 1st IO Command has quickly become a center of excellence, and the electronic warfare, space, MILDEC
, and PSYOP communities are already well established.
The subject matter and scope of this article is limited to providing a framework for legal oversight to the planning and execution of tactical level PSYOP and MILDEC operations.
Section two covers the basic law and unclassified regulatory schemes under which MILDEC and PSYOP operations might be carried out.
but IO does not necessarily concern itself with computers anddiskdrives.PSYOP and MILDEC, for example, can rely upon very low-tech methods yet remain effective.
Influence operations consist of operations security, MILDEC, PSYOP, public affairs, counter-intelligence, and counterpropaganda.
For organizational purposes, and in conformance with AFDD 2-5, Information Operations, we combine the analysis of CNA/NetA and CND/ NetD under the heading of NW and the analysis of PSYOP and MILDEC
under the heading of influence operations.