Denial and deception operations are a combination of operations security and MILDEC activities, supported by a wide-range of IRCs, to protect critical information, facilitate surprise, and deliberately mislead an adversary to achieve a tactical, operational, or strategic advantage.
For instance, certain EW, cyber, and special technical operations capabilities must be well protected to achieve any form of technical surprise, and MISO, EW, cyber, MILDEC, and special technical operations also have uniquely strict political and legal sensitivities.
While MILDEC is customarily a wartime mission, PSYOP is conducted during all phases of military operations, including peacetime, and is authorized under Title 10, section 167 of the US Code, which allows the Department of Defense (DOD) to conduct PSYOP as part of special operations campaigns.
Out of necessity, DOS public diplomacy and military PA distance themselves from the highly controversial MILDEC, PSYOP, and propaganda mission sets in order to maintain a sense of credibility and operational effectiveness which is "predicated on [the] ability to project truthful information to a variety of audiences.
While traditional forms of MILDEC--operational feints, displays, or instances of camouflage and concealment--are increasingly negated by advancements in intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance technology that quickly uncover the deception, cybertechnology has brought a new generation of MILDEC options to military planners.
Section two covers the basic law and unclassified regulatory schemes under which MILDEC and PSYOP operations might be carried out.
While some of the regulations and doctrine inherent to PSYOP and MILDEC are classified, and therefore not referenced in this primer, the goal of providing basic guidance is obtainable.
Generally, PSYOP and MILDEC are concerned with influencing others, while other types of information dissemination (e.
and PSYOP, public affairs also targets the mind--but with truthful, credible information.
For organizational purposes, and in conformance with AFDD 2-5, Information Operations, we combine the analysis of CNA/NetA and CND/ NetD under the heading of NW and the analysis of PSYOP and MILDEC under the heading of influence operations.
AFDD 2-5 describes influence operations as those "affecting the perceptions and behaviors of leaders, groups, or entire populations," including PSYOP and MILDEC within its definition.
This is not to say that psychological effects or MILDEC does not exist or that we do not conduct them, but most operators receive little formal training in these areas.