The ED and MIMR categories consistently have included an overrepresentation of students identified as African American; the learning disabilities (LD) category has included frequent overrepresentation of students identified as Native American; whereas each of the four categories has included a national underrepresentation of students identified as Asian and Latino.
Researchers have shown indicators of child poverty (e.g., proportion of students receiving free or reduced-price lunch, median community income) to be positively related to overrepresentation in some categories (e.g., MIMR for Native American students) and inversely related in others (e.g., ED, SLD, and SLI for African American students; Coutinho, Oswald, & Best, 2002; Skiba, Poloni-Staudinger, Simmons, Feggins-Azziz, & Chung, 2005).
district showed that students identified as ELLs were overrepresented in MIMR, SLD, and SLI at rates more than twice that of their White peers, and that they were subjected to substantially more restrictive placements (Valenzuela, Copeland, Qi, & Park, 2006).
The disability categories examined in this study include MIMR, SLD, SLI, and ED, based on state definitions.
The results showed that at the state level, students identified as ELLs were increasingly overrepresented in special education and in each of the high-incidence categories of SLD, SLI, and MIMR, as other studies of ELL representation in special education have shown.
One example is the McMaster Isntitute for Materials Research (MIMR
), comprised of scientists from chemistry, physics, geology, nuclear medicine and engineering, with many common interests and equipment requirements.