MLAOModified Left Anterior Oblique
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They communicated these advancements to the university registrar, who already may have wearied of MLAO resolutions, judging by his terse reaction to some of the preceding year's innovations.
Nonetheless, the MLAO appears to have been signally successful in shifting pedagogic practices in modern language teaching.
What of the MLAO as an organization for teachers and professors of English?
To continue the MLAO history, then, from its 1888 meeting in the opening week of 1889 but with a more restricted focus: in its first three years the MLAO had been able to advocate for the modern languages in ways that suited both instructors of French and German and teachers of English.
The MLAO was thriving, but it was facing the usual logistical difficulties of free-standing scholarly organizations and perhaps sensing its distance from teachers in other disciplines.
Although under the OEA umbrella, the MLAO diverged in some significant respects.
But the MLAO must have remained a vital organization, judging from its ability to attract a new generation of teachers and scholars--the graduates of the 1880s and '90s--and women in especial.
An overview of the 147 papers presented in the fifteen years after the amalgamation (1892 to 1906) gives a sense of the MLAO in the turn-of-the-century years (although these figures should be read as inexact, since some participants remain unidentified and the subjects of some papers must be inferred).
The fact that the "literary" papers compose almost half of the total shows the degree to which the MLAO was functioning as a "learned society" (to use a term from our own time, although one now rapidly fading from view) and also indicates its role in facilitating the rise of new critical studies.
The greatest change affecting the MLAO, and its members in English, came with the establishment of a separate, and eventually competing, "English and History" section in the OEA.
Fraser and, untimely, Eliza Balmer), the MLAO last referred to itself, in its minutes, as an Association in 1917, and while its published minutes continued in OEA proceedings (and further holograph records may have been kept even if they now are lost), the last entry in the extant minute book is inscribed in 1919.
(Douglas, with hindsight, would see the case contrariwise, since such scholarship provided a justification for modern languages and assuaged anxieties that their study fell short of the classical ideal.) Whatever the explanation, for the MLAO this was not the case, and it is worth speculating why.