Abbreviations: ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme; ACh: acetylcholine; ALDH2: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2; ARB: angiotensin II receptor blocker; CAS: coronary artery spasm; CCB: calcium-channel blocker; ECG: electrocardiogram; e-NOS: endothelial nitric oxide synthase; hsCRP: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; ISDN: isosorbide dinitrate; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; L-NMMA: L-monomethyl-arginine; MI: myocardial infarction; MLC: myosin light chain; MLCK
: myosin light chain kinase; MLCP: myosin light chain phosphatase; NO: nitric oxide; NOS: nitric oxide synthase; PCI: percutaneous coronary intervention; ROCK: Rho-associated kinase; ROS: reactive oxygen species.
The cells were pretreated with 50 [micro] M ML-7 (a selective inhibitor of MLCK
) or vehicle (0.1% DMSO) for 6 h and then treated with L.
It has been proposed that an increase in MLCK
expression and activity is associated with the NF-[kappa]B-mediated disruption of TJ .
In neurons, MLCK
can promote the recruitment of synaptic vesicles, enhance the release of neurotransmitters, and regulate the elongation, migration, and projections of growth axon [5-8].
Myosin and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK
) used in the assay were purified from chicken gizzard smooth muscle as described previously (22).
Whitmore et al., "FAK-Src signalling through paxillin, ERK and MLCK
regulates adhesion disassembly," Nature Cell Biology, vol.
MLC are phosphorylated by the myosin light chain kynase (MLCK
), a kinase [Ca.sup.2+] calmodulin-dependent , and dephosphorylated by the myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) [26, 27].
The IP3 induces intracellular [Ca.sup.2+] release, and this active [Ca.sup.2+] -calmodulin system triggers the activation of myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK
) which initiates smooth muscle contraction in mammary myoepithelial cells  (Figure 3).
Clarkson e colaboradores (25) observaram que individuos homozigotos para o alelo MLCK
(cadeia leve de miosina) do tipo 49T apresentaram maiores incrementos nas concentracoes plasmaticas de CK e mioglobina, em resposta ao exercicio excentrico.
Andrew Braun (University of Calgary) for generously providing CaM inhibitory peptides [BK.sub.a], MLCK
, and CaM Kinase I.
IP3 then binds to its receptor on SR membrane releasing [Ca.sup.2+] stores which then, through forming a complex with calmodulin, activate myosin light chain kinase (MLCK
) which phosphorylates regulatory myosin light chains (rMLC) forming p-MLC .
PAK can also inhibit the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK
) which diminishes actomyosin contractility [64, 65].