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MLCRA algorithm follows the CH rotations used by the LEACH-DCHS [15].
Table 3 shows the total number of CH rotations for ECT-2, ECT-3, ECT-4 and MLCRA. We observe that, as threshold T increases, the total number of CH rotations also increases.
As to the MLCRA algorithm, it frequently rotates the role of CHs to share the loads among all sensor nodes.
Simulation results show that the ECT protocol can efficiently improve network lifetime, achieve energy efficiency and reduce CH rotations compared to the MLCRA protocol.
Apart from these factors in LEACH, multihop of MLCRA may also increase the number of lost packets.
MLCRA is not based on the location of SNs and cannot ensure that total distance is short while next transmission distance is good.