In contrast to the relatively limited literature on the effectiveness of MLTPA laws, several recent studies employed RD type models to investigate the effect of the MLDA
of 21 on alcohol consumption and alcohol consumptionrelated outcomes.
2007; Measure interdependence between USA, 48 US states; impacts of MLDA
and tax using all 1975-2001 age-group-specific models and fixed effects model accounting for cross- sectional and time series variation; data from FARS; MI: MVF, MLDA
, beer tax.
In addition, drinking is inversely related to beer taxes, liquor prices, MLDAs
and marijuana decriminalization, meaning that each is positively associated with high school graduation rates through its covariance with alcohol use.
First, the overall impact estimated in earlier research is driven by states that increased their MLDA
prior to any inducement from the federal government.
This makes sense if a higher MLDA
works only when state governments can set a drinking age that reflects local attitudes and concerns, and when states are energized to enforce such laws.
Proponents of maintaining the MLDA
point to community-based approaches that have realized success at a number of academic institutions, including the University of Rhode Island, which, according to The Wall Street Journal, moved aggressively to crack down on underage drinking, and the University of Wisconsin-Stout, which realized a drop in high-risk drinking among first-year college students from 61 percent in 2005 to 43 percent in 2007.
Moreover, the certainty of consequences is more important than severity in deterring undesirable behavior, The benefits of the MLDA
have occurred with minimal enforcement, yet studies of the effects of increased enforcement show that it is highly effective in reducing alcohol sales to minors.
in the United States have not changed for a number of decades, current research looks back in time to reexamine fatal-crash rates among underage drinkers, exploring contingencies in policy effectiveness related to enforcement and support for MLDA
laws (Miron and Teitlebaum 2009) as well as other constraints on the alcohol market (e.
Many studies in the United States have found that raising the MLDA
to 21 years of age reduces alcohol use.
TABLE 5 Estimates of Early Alcohol Consumption (by Age 14) on High School Completion (Diploma by Age 20 versus GED or Later-Life Diploma) Probit Sample N = 7,646 Estimate MLDA
14 Effect on Education by -0.
Dee and Evans use the increases in the state MLDA
during the late 1970s and 1980s as a source of variation in teen drinking, and data from the 1977-92 Monitoring the Future surveys, to demonstrate that teens who faced an MLDA
of 18 were substantially more likely to drink than teens who faced a higher drinking age.
Cook and Tauchen found that reducing the MLDA
resulted in an increase of fatality rates among youthful drivers.