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To use MLFE for estimating frequency offset, we first need to obtain the discrete phases of M continuous sample points ([[??].sub.k], 0 [less than or equal to] k [less than or equal to] M - 1) and then take the first sample point [[??]x.sub.0] as initial reference point to obtain M absolute phases, which can be expressed as
Therefore, to enable frequency offset estimation block shown in Figure 5 and the QPSK ADCOL shown in Figure 2 to operate as synchronously as possible, we set the number of the sample point of MLFE tobe M = 8.
Therefore, we simulate our MLFE under the condition of sample frequency [f.sub.T] = 26 MHZ and carrier frequency [f.sub.c].
First of all, the frequency offset will be estimated roughly and then transformed into the frequency control words of the NCO by MLFE to speed up QPSK ADCOL to quickly implement the tracking of the carrier.
On the other hand, a FD in possession of linear characteristic is introduced to supply a more precise frequency offset to MLFE, which is implemented just using shifters and multiply-accumulate units to estimate the frequency offset and assist QPSK ADCOL to lock quickly.
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