The studies varied widely in quality, from those that did not conform to a research process, including discussion papers such as Hudson and Marshall (2008) and were unable to be rated using MMAT, to studies with an excellent methodological basis such as that by Dinh et al (2012).
Author, year Limitations Recommendations/ MMAT country [section] implications * % Abzug 2015 Final study not Study suggests found in peer- the need Baltimore, reviewed for more USA journal.
"Testing the Reliability and Efficiency of the Pilot Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT
) for Systematic Mixed Studies Review." International Journal of Nursing Studies 49 (1): 47-53.
Data that identified the barriers or facilitators to community reintegration were extracted from the seven studies and tabulated, and the MMAT
rating identified (Table 1).
Two researchers familiarised themselves with the MMAT by studying the tutorial  before applying the MMAT to mixed methods CAM studies.
Following application of the MMAT screening questions, three articles did not meet the criteria for full application of the MMAT and 12 articles were identified that reported ethnopharmacological/ethnobotanical studies in which the quantitative component was a laboratory-based quantitative study of plants.
The MMAT distinguishes between four major mixed methods designs: sequential explanatory, sequential exploratory, triangulation, and embedded.
The MMAT results suggest that some mixed methods elements were of good quality and the quantitative components were generally of higher quality than the qualitative components (Table 2).
The relationship between the sixth grade MMAT scores and S/T ratio is illustrated in Figure 2.
Table 6 Mean Sixth Gradt MMAT Scores by Student Teacher Ratio Students/Teacher Reading Math Science Social Studies [less than]12.00 303.00 351.08 344.69 322.31 12.00-13.99 309.36 356.24 358.32 321.28 14.00-15.99 313.85 371.46 371.00 340.77 [greater than]16.00 324.33 396.12 381.44 346.33 60 Schools 311.48 366.37 363.05 331.45 State Sample 308 349 347 322 The schools were grouped by secondary S/T ratios.
Table 7 Mean Tenth Grade MMAT Scores by Student Teacher Ratio Students/Teacher Reading Math Science Social Studies [less than]8.00 317.33 349.33 358.67 316.50 9.00-10.99 313.75 347.08 354.50 315.08 11.00-12.99 311.19 333.94 347.19 307.25 13.00-14.99 306.00 329.15 349.54 307.15 [greater than]15.00 300.14 330.14 327.71 306.14 60 Schools 313.23 338.72 350.68 312.22 State Sample 313 338 348 307 There appears to be an inconsistency in the relationship of S/T ratio and achievement between the sixth and tenth grades.
In 1987, approximately 40 to 60 percent of the students in this inner-city school ranked in the bottom two quintiles in language arts, mathematics, and science on the MMAT
. By 1989, 10 percent or less were in the bottom two quintiles, with few students placing in the lowest one.