In this section of the paper, I examine the changes in the spatiality, temporality, demography and distribution of resource utilization among wildlife and livestock in and around the MMNR. These data are drawn from secondary literature on the relationships between wildlife and livestock and original work on livestock movements from the study site.
The migration pattern begins from the wetter grasslands in the Serengeti between January and June, moving to the western corridor inside the MMNR in Kenya, where abundant forage from the wet season is consumed, before traversing the tall dry grasses back to the Serengeti between September and November.
Wildlife populations around the MMNR have fluctuated over the last thirty years.
Through the use of sophisticated spatial and statistical methods of analysis, such as spline and Poisson models, researchers have been able to spatially identify that the declines in resident wildebeest were greatest in the areas furthest away from the MMNR, while the greatest declines for migratory wildebeest were centred on the reserve.
2011: 102) and increasing frequency of movement in the MMNR. In the next section, I interrogate these claims with reference to scientific publications that reveal important nuances in resource utilization among pastoralists' livestock.
Data from aerial flights between 1980 and 2000 over much of the MMNR and the KGR reveal that during this period cattle numbers fluctuated between 6,000 and 55,000 (Lamprey and Reid 2004).
Beyond larger-scale analyses of livestock densities and distributions within the two broad political spaces (ranch versus reserve), research on pastoral cattle mobility at the village level, derived from GPS units (Figure 2), has found that: (1) cattle movement into PAs is widespread; (2) neither herd size nor season are significant limiting factors influencing movements into the MMNR (Butt et al.
There are several key points to take away from these findings of animal geographies within and around the MMNR and the KGR.
Given information on the political geographies of resource control, and animal geographies of resource utilization, what factors influence pastoralists' decisions to enter the MMNR, and how are relationships between pastoralists and PA managers based on differing ways of contextualizing movements into the PAs?
For most pastoralists, landscape-level decisions associated with grazing inside the MMNR are spatially and temporally patterned based on the need to ecologically balance forage intake with energetic costs (Butt 2010b).
Historically, pastoralists would access grazing lands before and during the existence of the MMNR and the KGR.
A significant factor associated with the decision to graze livestock in the MMNR is the creation of the OOC, which reduced the amount of available grazing lands for the Maasai in areas outside the MMNR.