MOBILE5AMobile Source Emission Factor Model (EPA)
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EPA's MOBILE5a model was used to estimate baseline exhaust emissions from a fleet of 1990-technology vehicles when operating on 1990 average gasoline (both summer and winter).
MOBILE4.1 was used to develop the non-exhaust Complex Model for Phase 1 of the RFG program; MOBILE5a was used for Phase 2 of the RFG program (year 2000 and later).
The two main factors explaining these differences between Phase 1 and Phase 2 are: (1) a change from MOBILE4.1 to MOBILE5a resulted in significantly higher estimates for all exhaust species, and (2) a change from Basic I/M to Enhanced I/M significantly reduced evaporative emissions.