In this review, we will especially emphasize the impact of some of the newly reported and readily available pluripotency markers (SALL4, OCT3/4, and SOX2) on the diagnosis of MOGCTs. We have not included other nuclear (AP-2[gamma], NANOG, UTF1, TLC1, etc) and cytoplasmic (Lin28 and IMP-3) pluripotency markers, since they broadly provide similar data and are not as widely used for diagnostic purposes.
OCT3/4, also known as POU5F1, is possibly one of the most useful antibodies in the diagnosis of MOGCTs. OCT3/ 4 is a nuclear transcription factor interacting with other nuclear factors, such as NANOG, SOX2, SALL4, and KLF4, (32) that maintain pluripotency in primordial germ and stem cells.
However, since it is a pluripotency marker, it can show positivity in EC, YS(PE)T, and primitive areas of immature teratoma; consequently, it represents a good, broad marker for MOGCTs. (39) Nevertheless, its expression has also been shown in myeloid leukemia and in some gastric carcinomas.