The developers of Relational Cultural Theory advocated the use of Mutual Psychological Development Questionnaire (MPDQ
) in understanding the outcomes of growth-fostering relationships.
Finally, Table 7 shows the correlations between the TMD and the MPDQ (Toda et al., 2006) in terms of global scores and scores on each of the three factors of the TMD.
Additionally, the TMD showed strong and statistically significant correlations with the MPDQ .
Correlations between TMD and MPDQ. Factor I Factor II Factor III Abstinence Lack Tolerance/ Control/ Interference Problems Factor I Abstinence 1 -- -- Factor II .569 ** 1 -- Lack Control/Problems Factor III .768 ** .601 ** 1 Tolerance/Interference Global .932 ** .765 ** .909 ** MPDQ .824 ** .575 ** .800 ** Subjective dependence .620 ** .422 ** .636 ** Global MPDQ Subjective dependence Factor I Abstinence -- -- -- Factor II -- -- -- Lack Control/Problems Factor III -- -- -- Tolerance/Interference Global 1 -- -- MPDQ .857 ** 1 -- Subjective dependence .654 ** .670 ** 1 ** The correlation is significant at the level of .01 (two tailed).
We evaluated the mobile phone dependence of the participants based on the responses given to 20 self-rated items related to mobile phone use in the MPDQ (Toda et al., 2004, 2006).
A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to determine whether the MPDQ scores were normally distributed.
The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test results indicated that the scores of the MPDQ were normally distributed (Z = 0.84, p = 0.48).
Keywords: mobile phone, Mobile Phone Dependence Questionnaire (MPDQ), parental rearing attitudes, Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), loneliness, female students.
Viewing compulsive mobile phone use as a type of technostress (Brod, 1984), and hoping to identify high-risk groups, we designed a questionnaire to gauge mobile phone dependence (Mobile Phone Dependence Questionnaire, MPDQ) (Toda, Monden, Kubo, & Morimoto, 2004).