"materials" is defined broadly in the MPRSA
has undergone multiple substantive amendments since its inception, one of which was renaming title III the National Marine Sanctuaries Act.
Despite these differences, aspects of the MPRSA
and the London
The GeoFence is comprised of a small computer, a GPS, and a relay which will be custom installed on each of Cashman's scows and which will be designed to track the current position of the scow relative to the MPRSA
permitted dump site coordinates and it will prevent dumping until the scow is inside the permitted dump site coordinates, thus eliminating the element of human error, a common cause of MPRSA
. Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972.
and PSRPA allow a defense for an act authorized by federal or state law.
At the same time that key international protocols were being adopted and ratified by large number of countries worldwide (early 1970s), the United States enacted the MPRSA
to regulate disposal of wastes in marine waters that are within U.S.
The CWA established a comprehensive program of water pollution regulation, and the MPRSA
established a comprehensive federal regulation of the dumping of materials into ocean waters near the coastline of the United States.
Title II of the MPRSA
authorizes the Secretary of Commerce, in conjunction with the Coast Guard and the EPA, to develop a comprehensive program of research on the effects of dumping material in the oceans, coastal and other waters; to initiate a continuing program of research with respect to possible long-range effects of pollution and other man-made changes in ocean ecosystems; to investigate alternative disposal methods and to determine means of minimizing or ending ocean dumping.
When Clean Ocean Action failed to block a dumping program, it sued and ultimately prevailed under the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA
and ESA specify that citizen suits are barred only if administrative penalty assessment proceedings have been initiated, and CWA, TSCA, and EPCRA bar citizen suits if any administrative action is taking place (Miller 1984a, 10072-73).
ICIS contains information on federal administrative and federal judicial cases under the following environmental statutes: the CAA, CWA, RCRA, EPCRA, TSCA, FIFRA, CERCLA (Superfund), SDWA, and MPRSA
. ICIS also contains information on compliance assistance activities conducted in EPA regions and headquarters.