In the Gwalior region, Gwalior, Guna, Shivpuri, Ashok Nagar, Sheopur, Morena, Bhind and Teekamgarh have been identified by the MPTB
Overall, similar results were observed for MPTB
and VPTB as those for PTB, except positive associations were observed between MPTB
and iron, titanium, magnesium and strontium and between VPTB and titanium and magnesium (see Table S3).
For MPTB, single-species RDs were null, whereas multispecies RDs were negative for exposures in weeks 1-27.
For MPTB and LPTB, single-species RDs were generally null or slightly elevated in early weeks, and null afterward with some negative risks at the latest weeks.
RDs for VPTB, MPTB, and LPTB were generally elevated across all weeks of gestation in single- and multi-species models.
RDs for EC exposure and VPTB, MPTB, and LPTB were higher than would be expected on an additive scale for women of black race/ethnicity and women who smoked during pregnancy (Figure 5).
EC had the strongest associations in VPTB and MPTB, particularly with exposure windows before the 23rd week of gestation and across single- and multi-species models.
RDs generally dropped to null around lag period 3, and then increased again for ExPTB, VPTB, and MPTB. LPTB RDs are positive for exposures with lags 0-3 and lags 4-5.
Risk of birth at (4) 20-27 weeks of gestation (ExPTB), (B) 28-31 weeks of gestation (VPTB), (C) 32-34 weeks of gestation (MPTB), and (D) 35-36 weeks of gestation (LPTB).
Risk of birth at U) 20-27 weeks of gestation (ExPTB), (B) 28-31 weeks of gestation (VPTB), (C) 32-34 weeks of gestation (MPTB), and (D) 35-36 weeks of gestation (LPTB).