Beck and Jessup (2004) found support for both Hard and Soft Quest in their initial study of the MQOS. When examining inter-scale correlations, they found that the subscales posited as Hard Quest (i.e., Change, Universality, Religious Angst, Complexity, and Existential Motives) were associated with a number of other religious variables, including decreased intrinsic religiosity, increased extrinsic religiosity, decreased spiritual well-being, and less orthodox beliefs.
First, the multidimensionality of the Quest construct was re-examined through factor analysis of the MQOS. While Beck and Jessup (2004) did find support for their posited nine-factor structure, they were unable to conduct an item-level factor analysis of their data due to a relatively small sample size (n = 183).
Additionally, Beck and Jessup (2004) noted that the MQOS subscales Change, Universality, Angst, Complexity, and Existential Motives each yielded similar correlations with the other measures of religiosity utilized in their study.
As Beck (2006) found that his Defensive Theology Scale (DTS) was negatively related to the Interactional Scale (Batson & Schoenrade, 1991b), it is expected that the DTS total score will also be negatively related to each of the subscales of the MQOS. Further, Beck and Jessup (2004) found that several of their proposed MQOS subscales (i.e., Change, Universality, Religious Angst, Complexity, and Existential Motives) were positively related to extrinsic religiosity, and these same relationships are expected in the current study.
Two different instruments, the QS and the MQOS, were utilized to assess religious doubt phenomena.
The MQOS has 62-items and employs a seven-point Likert response format.
Other components of the MQOS, those proximal to the quest religion construct such as tentativeness, change, existential motives, and complexity, need to be examined with social personality dispositions.
MQOS-Ecumenism -.02 .12 .24* Note: *p < .01 ** p < .001; MQOS
= Multidimensional Quest Orientation Scale TABLE 2 Worldview defense cell means for groups Religious Type: Mortality Salience Condition: High Defensiveness Low Defensiveness Mortality Salient 12.06 4.48 Mortality Non-salient 10.75 2.18 Note: Positive cell mean = Pro-Christian attractiveness ratings > Pro- Buddhism attractiveness ratings.
Toward this end, the MQOS was administered to a sample of college students along with measures of spiritual well-being, religious orientation, and Christian orthodoxy.
Developed for this study, and described earlier, the MQOS consists of nine subscales assessing various Quest dimensions (see Appendix for items): Tentativeness, Change, Ecumenism, Universality, Exploration, Moralistic Interpretation, Religious Angst, Complexity, and Existential Motives.
Prior to examining the relationships of the Quest dimensions as assessed by the MQOS with the other religious constructs, it was necessary to assess the psychometrics of the MQOS.
Table 2 presents the zero-order correlations between the MQOS subscales with subscale alpha coefficients presented along the diagonal.