In view of the corroborated significant MTCT
in Pakistan, the health sector has to introduce a universal and timely coverage with hepatitis B birth dose vaccination administered soon after birth and within the first 24 hours.
Two additional strategies have had an impact on the MTCT
: elective cesarean section as the mode of delivery, and the use of infant formula.
The government responded by setting up a working party in 1998  to look into ways of reducing MTCT
. Their recommendations resulted in the Department of Health issuing a directive in 1999  stating that all pregnant women should be offered and recommended an HIV test as an integral and routine part of antenatal screening.
Interpretation & conclusion: Our data from a small cohort of HIV-infected women suggest that short-course AZT or single dose NVP are effective in reducing MTCT
in an Indian setting.
The second achievement, which was aggressively fought but eventually conceded by the South African government, was the outcome of a Constitutional Court battle in favor of wider distribution of the ARV drug Nevirapine for use in prevention of MTCT
. (30) Without any intervention the MTCT
rate is 35 percent.
This study occurred during a changing environment in preventing perinatal HIV transmission, with results of studies in other countries demonstrating the benefits of short-course AZT use (23,24) or nevirapine use (25) in late pregnancy and perinatally to reduce the risk for MTCT
. Similarly, studies of malaria prevention in pregnancy during the study interval were demonstrating the benefit of intermittent antimalarial treatment to prevent maternal anemia and low birth weight (6,26).
Nevirapine is the cheapest anti-HIV drug on the market and has proven so effective in preventing mother to child transmission (from 26% to 13% in the HIVNet 012 study) that the Bush administration is backing a $500 million plan to expand MTCT
programs in 14 hard-hit countries.
, through its wholly-owned subsidiaries, provides engineering, technical and management services to the Federal Government and employs approximately 1100 people in 20 locations.
The consortium's report highlights that certain precautions and the appropriate use of anti-retroviral therapy during pregnancy, labour and in the neonatal period can reduce the risk of mother to child HIV transmission (MTCT
) from 15-20% (without intervention) to less than 2%.
It has been estimated that 800,000 children younger than 15 years of age were newly infected in 2001 and that > 90% were due to mother-to-child transmission (MTCT
The Minnesota Test of Critical Thinking-II (MTCT
) has been designed to measure both critical thinking (CT) skills and the willingness to evaluate critically arguments that are congruent with one's own goals and beliefs.
Boehringer Ingelheim will also provide, free of cost, to public sector hospitals, the drug Viramine, specifically for treatment of pregnant women so as to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT
) of AIDS.