This is consistent with the QSS aerodynamic model error results, as these were the two aerodynamic degrees of freedom with the most reduced modelling error from the MUAM.
The predicted static margin results reveal that implementing the more accurate MUAM has a significant effect on the prediction of the vehicle handling, especially in turn entry segments, [S.
This is consistent with the large pitch moment difference shifting the vertical load distribution to the rear axle with the MUAM implementation.
A small effect on the difference in the maximum potential corner speed is seen from the implementation of the MUAM compared to the conventional aerodynamic model.
The difference in predicted drive force demand resulting from the simulation comparison is minimal, with the MUAM only resulting in a -0.
The MUAM is shown to primarily affect the vehicle handling metric resulting from the full lap QSS simulation when compared to the conventional aerodynamic model.
Thus for accurate handling predictions, the authors recommend the application of the high fidelity MUAM to race vehicle simulations.
The high fidelity MUAM proposed, developed, and applied in this paper is shown to more accurately model the quasi steady state wind tunnel test data than the conventional aerodynamic model over the range of vehicle orientations tested.
When implemented in a full-lap QSS simulation, the increased accuracy of the MUAM changes the aerodynamic forces and moments, primarily the lift force and pitch moment, applied to the vehicle model when compared to the implementation of the conventional aerodynamic model.