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MULTIPATHthe Possible Multiple Routes for A Single Beam of Energy
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Spirent Sim3D's unique 3D modeling solution shows the way ahead for realistic multipath simulation for more accurate testing of GNSS devices and connected autonomous vehicles
1, assuming the distance between the signal source and the antenna array is far enough, [[theta].sub.i] and [[tau].sub.i] represent AOA and propagation delay of the i-th multipath signal respectively.
[10] proposed an energy efficient adaptive multipath routing technique with multiple path utilization between source and destination node.
where LP is the number of the multipath components and [mathematical expression not reproducible] and [[tau].sub.i,m] are the complex attenuation of the ith path and propagation delay of the ith path in mth antenna, respectively.
The multipath effect refers to errors due to the indirect-path of satellite signals recorded by a GPS receiver, typically from the signal reflected by the surroundings of the receiver antenna, and thus differing from the direct-path signal.
The main operation is to estimate the disorder packets by using the available receiving buffer size and multipath dissimilar characteristics; that is, if congestion occurs, RBPM would immediately stop the bad transmission path.
The idea of multipath assisted positioning is contrary, though.
The theoretical BER bound of STACO-OFDM on multipath channel can be derived from the theoretical BER bound achieved at the available strata.
Authors in [14, 15, 16] proposed a technique (CMT-OUT) to enhance the multipath transmission data rate.
Using the given geometry, after all the multipath distances and reflection angles are found, the channel can be modelled.
However, in critical environments such as urban canyons, the satellite signal is often blocked and/or reflected by surrounding objects causing multipath and Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) signal interferences [4, 5].
However, multipath fading channel would seriously impact on modulation classification.