Table 2 presents the total scores and subscores of ABC-J in the two age groups and the comparison between the two age groups in three pairs: total adolescents and total young adults, adolescents with DEL and young adults with DEL, and adolescents with mUPD and young adults with mUPD.
In marked contrast to DEL, the two age groups with mUPD showed statistically significant differences in the total score of ABC-J (median = 16.5, 77.0; p = 0.007) and four of its five subscores such as "irritability and agitation" (median = 5.0, 21.0; p = 0.031), "lethargy and social withdrawal" (median = 4.5, 19.0; p = 0.011), "stereotypic behavior" (median = 0, 7.0; p = 0.011), and "hyperactivity and noncompliance" (median = 1.5, 19.0; p = 0.003), with lower scores in adolescents than in young adults, respectively.
Such lack of significant difference was still true for the three pairs: total adolescents and total young adults, adolescents with DEL and young adults with DEL, and adolescents with mUPD and young adults with mUPD.
Compared with the DEL subgroups, the mUPD subgroups showed a marginally significant difference between the two age groups in terms of the total score of PARS (median =10, 21; p = 0.056), though the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance.
On the contrary, the PARS total score for young adults with mUPD was above the cut-off value, in contrast with adolescents with mUPD scoring lower than the cut-off value.
For example, in terms of aberrant behaviors, young adults' behaviors were more severe than adolescents', and such differences between the two age groups were equally true for the mUPD subgroups.
As for the mUPD subgroups, such a worsening curve is likewise distinct in aberrant behaviors and less distinct, but nonnegligible, in autistic behaviors.
As for autistic behaviors, the results of this study offer a cautionary suggestion about developmental changes around the age of 18, in regard to PWS in general and mUPD in particular.
The two-way ANOVAs to examine the interaction between gender and genotype, followed by the Bonferroni procedure to test the simple main effects, showed the following: food-related behaviors of male DEL were more severe than those of female DEL, and on the contrary food-related behaviors of male mUPD were less severe than those of female mUPD.
, there is a growing tendency for the autistic and impulsive behavioral problems, which are more severe in mUPD than in DEL that can manifest themselves later in adolescence.
Although little is known about gender differences, PWS individuals with a psychotic disorder showed a disproportionate number of mUPD patients .
Total Male Female Number (patients) 82 45 37 IQ (mean [+ or -] SD) 49.3 [+ or -] 49.9 [+ or -] 48.2 [+ or -] 9.6 9.3 10.3 IQ range 39-84 39-79 39-84 Age (mean [+ or -] 18.6 [+ or -] 19.7 [+ or -] 16.9 [+ or -] SD) 9.4 10.2 8.0 Age range 6-58 6-58 6-45 DEL mUPD Number (patients) 59 23 IQ (mean [+ or -] SD) 49.7 [+ or -] 44.6 [+ or -] 9.8 6.5 IQ range 39-84 39-62 Age (mean [+ or -] 19.0 [+ or -] 15.4 [+ or -] SD) 9.5 76 Age range 6-58 6-36 p value (t-test) Gender groups Genotype groups Number (patients) IQ (mean [+ or -] SD) 0.44 0.001 * IQ range Age (mean [+ or -] 0.11 0.017 * SD) Age range * p < 0.05.