Rate limiting bottlenecks have been proposed at single specific steps in both the MVAP and JH-branch in the CA of different insects, including upstream of the acetyl-CoA pool  as well as by rate limiting blockages at different enzymatic steps in the pathway, including the activities of HMGR [158,159], farnesol dehydrogenase , farnesal dehydrogenase , or JHAMT [7, 77].
Branch point regulation is an important mechanism controlling carbon flow in the MVAP; the FPP produced by the MVAP can be shunted to many metabolic branches for the synthesis of critical molecules such as ubiquinone, dolichol, or prenylated proteins .
In the CA, some MVAP precursor pools might be controlled by feedback regulation imposed by metabolites such as FPP operating in the downstream portions of the pathway, in a similar mode to the negative feedback of late MVAP precursors (GPP, FPP) on the activity of mevalonate kinase described for terpene homeostasis in mammals .
What do integrated studies of CA transcripts, enzyme activities, and metabolites tell us about the coordination of MVAP and JH-branch activities?
The antimicrobials assessed to compare the resistance of the Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from patients with and without MVAP were: amikacin (10 [micro]g), ampicillin (10 [micro]g), ampicillin-sulbactam (10 [micro]g-10 [micro]g), aztroenam (30 [micro]g), cefepime (30 [micro]g), cefoxitine (30 [micro]g), ceftazidime (30 [micro]g), ceftriaxone (30 [micro]g), ciprofloxacin (5 [micro]g), colistin (10 [micro]g), gentamicin (10 [micro]g), imipenem (10 [micro]g), meropenem (30 [micro]g), nalidixic acid (30 [micro]g), and tigecycline (15 [micro]g).
7%) had diffuse and localized infiltrates, respectively, which are relevant signs of MVAP.
The microorganisms isolated from this universe of patients with MVAP were: Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas spp.
Resistance rates to 15 different antimicrobials of the Acinetobacter baumanni and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from patients with and without MVAP are shown in Figs.
MVAP is more frequent and severe exhibiting a high mortality.
who have demonstrated lower rates of the MVAP than those reported in the HAH, (15) despite sharing the same health system and geographical area.
The etiology of MVAP was described several years ago, and it varies according to the characteristics of the geographic area and ICU, and the ventilation time of the patients.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus meticillin-sensitive were described as the bacteria associated to MVAP in 39 ICUs in Colombia.