In a MVEM simulation, the surrounding pressures and the turbocharger speed are normally state variables.
Since mass flow is not available as an external input in a normal MVEM simulation, see (7), it has to be calculated using the mass flow model.
For treating the problem of fault diagnosis from a model based perspective, the described hybrid automata model in  which is based on the instantaneous within cycle engine model is used rather than the conventionally used Mean Value Engine Model (MVEM).
This is because most model based approaches in engine fault diagnosis use MVEMs which cannot capture within cylinder dynamics and hence can address only faults which occur in subsystems external to the cylinder like manifolds [9, 25, 26, and 27], throttle  or EGR [28, 29].
The mean value engine model (MVEM) is established first, and then the adaptive idle controller is developed by applying system identification method and adaptive controller.
For executing linearization control in target point, the nonlinear engine dynamics should be linearized with above-mentioned MVEM. In this study, the linearized MVEM is applied to verify RLS method whether system parameters can be identified.