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Serum containing flavivirus antibodies in ELISA were subsequently tested by serum cross-neutralization assay for antibodies to FRV, MVEV, KUNV, Alfuy virus, KOKV, Stratford virus, and EHV as described previously (27).
Other arboviruses detected during these seasons included MVEV, KUNV, KOKV, RRV, and Sindbis virus (Table 3).
Cell culture supernatants: (a) West Nile virus lineage 1a, strain NY99 (WNV.1a.NY); red bars: sample diluted [10.sup.-1] and blue bars: diluted [10.sup.-4]; (b) West Nile virus lineage 2, strain Uganda 1937 (WNV.2.Ug); red bars: [10.sup.-1] and blue bars: [10.sup.-4]; (c) Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV); red bars: [10.sup.-1] and blue bars: [10.sup.-3]; (d) Tick-borne encephalitis virus, strain Langaat (TBLang); red bars: [10.sup.-1] and blue bars: [10.sup.- 3].
Like MVEV, Ross River Virus (RRV) is endemic to Australia and New Guinea.
In addition, the mosquitoes were also found susceptible to WNV (New York 1999), MVEV and KUNV as demonstrated by experimental studies (12).
In another study, Johnson et al (12) reported high transmission potential of the mosquito to JEV, KUNV and MVEV with transmission rates of 96, 95 and 41%, respectively.
gelidus, which has the potential to transmit a number of encephalitis causing viruses such as JEV, MVEV, WNV, etc especially in the wake of WNV activity in certain parts of the country.
The mAbs and their characteristics follow: mAb 10C6, anti-nonstructural protein (NS) 1 (reactive with MVEV); mAb 10A1, anti-envelope glycoprotein (anti-E; specific for [WNV.sub.KUN]); mAb 2B2, anti-E (reactive with WNV); mAb 3.1112G, anti-NS1 (reactive with WNV); mAb 5H1, anti-NS5 (strong reaction with [WNV.sub.KUN] strains, weak for [WNV.sub.NY99], nonreactive with WNV strains from other lineages); mAb 17D7, anti-E (specific for strains of WNV with glycosylated E); mAb 3.101C, anti-E (specific for strains of WNV with unglycosylated E); and the pan-flavivirus-reactive mAbs (i.e., 4G4, anti-NS1; and 4G2, anti-E) (12-15; J.
Although RabV exhibits the closest relationship to the WNV representatives, similar identity rates (76%) exist between MVEV and USUV, as well as between JEV and ALFV, and these viruses have been taxonomically classified as separate viruses.
RabV shared 89%-90% identity on the complete polypeptide precursor region with the WNV strains, 87% identity with the Rus89 strain, and 75%-76% identity with JEV, USUV, and MVEV. The alignments of the partial amino acid sequences of the NS5 region (between aa 2991 and 3335) showed 94%-96% identity rates with the WNV strains, 95% with strain Rus98, and 78%-90% with the other members of the JEV group (Table 3).
The following sequences have been included in the phylogenetic analysis: AF013384, Koutango virus; AF013413, Yaounde virus; D00246, Kunjin virus; AF202541, WNV (New York 1999); M12294, WNV; AF013367, Cacipacore virus; U 15763, JEV; AF013360, Alfuy virus; AF013389, MVEV; AF013412, USUV (South Africa); AF452643, USUV (Austria); AF013416, SLEV; M93130, DENV (type 3); and AF013417, YFV.
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