Between January 1997 and July 2014, a total of 102 feet of 51 children (24 males, 27 females; mean age 5.0 years; range, 3 to 8 years) who were treated for an intoeing gait symptom of easily falling using the MWI (toe-in gait group) were included.
The MWI with a height of 5 mm and an arch support (Figure 1a-c) made of ethylene-vinyl acetate were made-to-order and customized to the foot of each child by a prosthetist (Rakuhoku Prosthetic and Orthotic Manufacturing Co.
To evaluate the treatment, the children and their parents were asked to rate the MWI on a scale ranging between 1 and 5: 1 effective, 2 rather effective, 3 rather ineffective, 4 ineffective, 5 don't know (Table 1a).
The range of internal and external rotation in the hip internal rotation angle (IRA), external rotation angle (ERA), thigh foot angle (TFA), femorotibial angle (FTA), and metatarsus adductus index (MAI) were measured as physical findings of the toe-in gait group by a goniometer before using MWI. The IRA, ERA, TFA, FTA, and MAI were calculated by adding values for the left and right lower limbs and defined as IRAB, ERAB, TFAB, FTAB, and MAIB to evaluate the physical characteristics of both sides together.
The conditions of 12 feet of six children both with and without MWI (2 males, 4 females) in the toe-in gait group in whom MWI was effective were evaluated by gait analysis.
There are three types of distributed algorithms for MWIS problem: greedy algorithms, carrier sense random multiple access (CSMA) algorithms, and message-passing algorithms.
For greedy algorithms, several simple distributed algorithms for MWIS have been proposed in the literature [19-22].
As explained in , these schemes perform sampling over independent sets of the graph and converge to the optimal MWIS in graphs with large weights.
Several message-passing algorithms for producing a feasible solution to the MWIS were proposed in [28-34].