2007) has used vertically pointing cloud radars, ALCs, and MWRs to derive cloud properties, compared them with the representation of clouds within several operational European forecast models, and produced statistics of the model performance (http://cloudnet .fmi.fi).
MWRS. MWRs measure downwelling radiation in terms of atmospheric brightness temperatures [T.sub.B] that are then converted to atmospheric variables of interest.
To monitor the behavior of continuous Tb observations, O-B statistics were computed for a 1-yr dataset from a prototype network of six MWRs (De Angelis et al.
The main findings of the analysis indicated that estimated SWRs for all major groups of occupations are different from the corresponding MWRs. This is because of the distortions in the labour market.
The study shows the significance of the difference between SWRs and the MWRs which is recommended to be adjusted in economic analysis of projects.
Table 4 Estimation of the CFs for the Major Groups of Occupations Market Wage The Estimated Rates Major Groups of Occupations SWRs (MWRs) 1.
The coefficient of determination [R.sup.2] between the MWRs and soundings for heights up to 1.5 km exceeded 0.98, with mean absolute errors (MAE) near 1.2 K (Fig.
The lapse rate measured by the radiometers for the height range covered by the RASS within the tower interval (0-300 m) showed the best [R.sup.2] between the radiometers and tower (0.89) followed by the RASS 915-MHz profiler and tower (0.81) with the RASS 449-MHz profiler and tower giving a correlation of 0.6 (perhaps lower because of the larger sample volume of the 449-MHz profiler), demonstrating that MWRs provide accurate assessments of atmospheric stability in the atmospheric boundary layer.
(20) For instance, using the riskless term structure with a long-term rate assumption of 3.44 percent, MWRs range from 1.24 to 1.31 for males and 1.26 to 1.34 for females.
Looking at the patterns of benefit values, it is interesting to note that the LIFE Income (sans bequest) and LIFE Plus (low bequest) plans provide higher MWRs than do the other two plans, implying a small penalty if participants elect a plan that includes bequests.
* compiled a list of MWRs in Europe and developed an international network: MWRnet;
Accurate MWR observations are subject to instrument integrity and proper signal calibration.