MYBPMillion Years Before Present
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Stratigraphic horizons younger than 2.6 MYBP, which contain australopithecines, often include worked stone implements.
ergaster (Africa) appear in the stratigraphic record about 2 MYBP. (21) These forms approximate the height of modern humans, have body proportions (e.g., shape of pelvis, rib cage, projecting nose) which approximate those of modern humans, and have cranial capacities of between 900 and 1150 cc.
After 1.5 MYBP, the African forms, and succeeding near-Eastern and European forms, are associated with a long-lived stone tool industry termed the "Acheulean," named for the French site of St.
Prior to the first Pleistocene glaciations (approximately 2.5 MYBP), drainage patterns in eastern North America differed radically from present geography ([ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 2A OMITTED]; Gray 1991; Melhorn and Kempton 1991).
This represents impressive stability given that penguins have a fossil history extending back to 50 mybp (Fordyce and Jones 1990).
This origin in Tenerife and subsequent westward colonization is compatible with the geological history of these islands as Tenerife, the island on which the species first arose, is the oldest (15.7 mybp) and the islands to the west are progressively younger, with the last to be colonized being youngest of all (i.e., La Palma at 1.6 my and Hierro at 0.75 my) (Abdel-Monem et al.