Hence, the nominal money per capita growth rate [[mu].sub.t] is also included as observable, which is computed using the log difference of "Money with Zero Maturity" (MZM
), reported by the Federal Reserve Bank of St.
Assuming that [beta] = [pi][V.sub.RF]/[V.sub.[pi]] is the modulation depth of the MZM
, [phi] = [pi][V.sub.b1]/[V.sub.[pi]DC] is constant phase shift determined by the constant dc-bias voltage.
Parameters Value Data rate 10 Gb/s OFDM subcarriers 64 Operating wavelength for master laser 1 1553.33 nm Operating wavelength for master laser 2 1553.13 nm Operating wavelength for master laser 3 1552.93 nm Operating wavelength for slave laser 1552.53 nm Channel spacing 25 GHz Fiber length 2x100 km MZM
bias point [pi]/2 Table 2: Critical analysis of the proposed technique with respect to existing literature.
The signal [bar.y](n) is converted into the continuous OFDM signal y (t) by a DAC device in order to drive a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM
In (2) and (3), [V.sub.in_1] and [V.sub.in_2] are the voltage values of the bits to be transmitted, and [V.sub.[pi]] is the voltage at the input of the MZM
or phase modulator that introduces a phase shift of 180 degrees over the optical signal (Synopsys Group Optical Solutions, 2013).
In the transmitter the radiation of the continuous wave (CW) optical laser (1 mW 196.4 THz) is externally modulated via a Mach-Zehnder Modulator (MZM
), which in its turn is driven by a sequence of NRZ coded electrical pulses that are produced by a tandem of a logical data source and an NRZ coder.
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These modulation formats are possible to design with in parallel connected Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZM
To approximate the changes in reserves resulting from monetary policy, annual data on money at zero maturity (MZM
) was obtained from the St.