The Espenberg Maars are the first reported example of hydromagmatic eruptions produced by interactions of magma with permafrost (Table 2).
The processes involved in the interaction of permafrost and magma at the Espenberg Maars are more than a curiosity, as the unusually large size of these four maars indicates that hydromagmatic eruptions involving permafrost can be significantly more explosive and typically excavate craters larger than those resulting from interactions with surface or groundwater (Table 2).
Water sources for selected hydromagmatic eruptions that have produced maars and tuff cones.
permafrost Espenberg Maars, Alaska 4000-8000 300 ground water Ukinrek Maars, Alaska 300 ca.
At most maars, highly explosive conditions constitute a transient eruptive phase associated either with initially low supplies of groundwater, or with the exhaustion of available water supplies during the course of the eruption.
Lorenz (1986) suggested that maars grow as crater walls collapse into successively deeper and wider conduits.
Landslides of high-enthalpy, water-rich debris into vents can produce hydromagmatic explosions (Houghton and Nairn, 1991), and since permafrost is extremely prone to failure during thawing, it is likely that mixtures of frozen debris and high-enthalpy water and steam were introduced into vents by landslides at the Espenberg Maars. These maars therefore grew from a combination of several processes, including the coalescence of several vents during extended eruptions and repeated collapse of landslide debris from the margins of the crater.
For Maars, the Wagner GA 2000 EPA guns were fitted with a flat-jet tip, which can be equipped with a deflector plate, if required, and contains an integrated high voltage generator.
The Maars installation has three powder coating lines, two of which are in operation, while the third is being cleaned, resulting in very high flexibility.