By measuring a patient's macular pigment optical density
(MPOD), we are identifying those at risk in a non-invasive manner before retinal disease is present."
Pauleikhoff, "Profiles of macular pigment optical density
and their changes following supplemental lutein and zeaxanthin: new results from the LUNA study," Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol.
The supplementation continued for one year, with measurements of macular pigment optical density
, photostress recovery, and disability glare made at baseline (before supplementation), and at 6 and 12 months.
Pemp et al., "Effects of lutein supplementation on macular pigment optical density
and visual acuity in patients with age-related macular degeneration," Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol.
CFF Thresholds: Relation to macular pigment optical density
. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 25(4), 315-9.
To date, studies reveal strong and consistent benefits of lutein, zeaxanthin, and mesozeaxanthin on retinal health and resistance to development of age-related macular degeneration, as measured by improvements in macular pigment optical density
. The strongest evidence, as is usually the case, comes from studies of early age-related macular degeneration, reinforcing the idea that early prevention is vastly superior to late attempts at cures.
reports that lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin supplementation improves macular pigment optical density
in both AMD and healthy subjects with a dose-response relationship .
These effects were highly statistically significant and supported by other work which showed that the relationship between body fat and macular pigment optical density
(MPOD) was statistically significant in males but not females, suggesting gender differences in the L/Z deposition pathways.
The findings of LAMA I were the subject of a paper, "Bioavailability of Lutein/Zeaxanthin Isomers and Macular Pigment Optical Density
Response to Macular Carotenoid Supplementation: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study," which was published in the journal New Frontiers in Ophthalmology.
* Macular pigment optical density
, which is a measurement of the thickness of the macular pigment: Higher density reduces the risk of macular degeneration, while lower density increases the risk.
Therefore an individual's macular pigment optical density
(MPOD) can vary, depending on diet and lifestyle.
Clinical research published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology in 2015 found that supplementation with lutein and/or zeaxanthin increased macular pigment optical density
(MPOD) in patients with early AMD.