) is how mercury is stored in fish tissues after biotransformation, and mercury levels may range from 0.4 to 5 mg/kg, increasing with the trophic level of the fish species in the food chain .
is a mercury-organic compound, which is easily assimilated and accumulated through aquatic trophic chains, due to its lipophilic nature (6).
Regular TTM ingestion leads to chronic exposure to inorganic Hg (IHg) and MeHg
, which was higher than from any other known dietary sources (34 to 3,000-fold and 0 to 12-fold, respectively).
The following search key words (or combinations of them) were applied: Hg, MeHg
, Se, speciation, Hg-Se interaction, Hg-Se antagonism.
Regarding neurodevelopment, a study using mouse embryonic cortical neural stem cells found that MeHg
treatment decreased mRNA levels of Dmnt3b but not Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a and induced global DNA hypomethylation .
Mercury occurs naturally in the environment on organic and inorganic forms, in which methylmercury (MeHg
) and mercury chloride (Hg[Cl.sub.2]) are the most toxic forms, respectively.
Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Site (SITE) was created with Hg and MeHg
designated as contaminants of concern.
Important human exposure sources are mercury vapors inhaled after release from dental amalgam, methyl mercury (MeHg
) from fish and ethyl mercury (EtHg) present in vaccines and some pharmaceutical products (Barregard et al., 2011; Risher et al., 2002; Clarkson and Magos, 2006; Ishitobi et al., 2010).
For these intriguing peculiarities, in our previous studies, intended to validate their use as peripheral surrogate markers in experimental controlled conditions, MRs have been investigated as biomarkers of neurotoxicity in animals exposed to environmental chemicals, demonstrating to reflect analogous receptor changes occurring in rat brain after repeated MeHg
exposure during adult age as well as during development [6, 21].
In October, environmental researchers from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center published a paper in Science Advances that capped a 2+-year-long study seeking to discover how and where methylmercury (MeHg
)--a bioaccumualative neurotoxin that poses risks to both people and ecosystems--forms naturally.
Methylmercury can easily bioaccumulate in food chains, and fish consumption can be a significant route of human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg
) (1, 2).
Heavy metals, such as methylmercury (MeHg
), are environmental pollutants that readily affect human beings by bioaccumulation through the food chain (1).