Later in the 20th century, in addition to the medical research laboratories, there were efforts to help countries contain biological threats and to assist with the delivery of health services through short-term, episodic medical interventions often referred to generically as medical civic action programs
(MEDCAPs) or medical readiness training exercises.
CPT Kevin March examines a child in Bargangay San Miguel during the Medical Civic action Program
(MEDCAP) while participating in Exercise Balikatan 2004 in Puerto Princesa, Palawan, Phillipines.
In another case, civil affairs teams under the command of the CJTF-HOA have joined forces with nongovernmental organizations that partner with USAID to provide medical and veterinary assistance to local health officials through Medical Civic Action Programs
and Veterinary Civic Action Programs.
SPC Hornstra assisted in over 250 tooth extractions for eight Medical Civic Action Programs