is of great interest because of its acute cytotoxicity and its tumor-promoting activity in hepatocytes of animals and humans (Gehringer 2004; Li et al.
In the December 2009 issue of Nano Letters Nicholas Kotov and colleagues describe a new biosensor that can rapidly detect microcystin-LR
(MC-LR) in drinking water.
Concern regarding these potential health risks has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to adopt a provisional guideline value for microcystin-LR
[MC-LR; containing leucine (L) and argenine (R) as the variable L-amino acids], the most common microcystin congener, of 1.0 [micro]/L drinking water (WHO 1998).
This antibody was raised against microcystin-LR
but cross-reacts with many of the known microcystin analogues.
The meeting came on the heels of a recommendation for federally sponsored toxicity studies of the most commonly found cyanotoxin, microcystin-LR
. The Interagency Committee for Chemical Evaluation and Coordination (ICCEC)--an external review body of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) composed of representatives from the major federal agencies involved in health research--had recommended in October 2000 that microcystin be evaluated by the NTP for chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity in humans.
Results show a complete degradation of the toxin microcystin-LR
in less than 20 minutes.
Blue-green Algae and Microcystin-LR
in Surface Water Supplies of Southwestern Manitoba.
In contrast, only one study showed that microtubules (MTs) were disrupted by microcystin-LR
in primary cultured rat hepatocytes and several nonhepatocyte cell lines (16).
HPLC and ELISA tentatively identified microcystin-LR
, the most toxic microcystin variant, as the predominant congener.
has been determined using magnetic beads modified (MMB) with polyethyleneimine and immobilized anti-micocystin-LR that capture the microcystin-LR
in water which react with HRP co-immobilzed silica NPs.
Human glutathione transferases catalyzing the conjugation of the hepatatoxin microcystin-LR
The production of microcystin-LR
by cyanobacterial strains was analyzed by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) method.