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MONDModified Newtonian Dynamics (missing dark matter theory)
MONDMinistry of National Defence (various nations)
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Modified Newtonian Dynamics as an alternative to Dark Matter.
Twenty-five years ago Milgrom conceived Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), a radical idea that gravity's behavior changes over galaxy-scale distances.
His theory of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) has attracted a small but dedicated group of followers, and in recent years they have made impressive calculations that explain galaxy motions while invoking only small quantities of dark matter.
This result would disqualify proposed explanations such as dark matter in the solar system, the pull of Kuiper Belt objects, and alterations to Newton's inverse-square law over long distances, key to a theory known as Modified Newtonian Dynamics.
Finally we follow another avenue and find modified Newtonian dynamics induced by the Yang's Noncommutative Spacetime algebra involving a lower and upper scale in Nature.
Finally, in 4 we study another interesting avenue for the origins of modified Newtonian dynamics based on Yang's Noncommutative Spacetime algebra involving a lower and upper scale [136] that has been revisited recently by us [134] in the context of holography and area-quantization in Cspaces (Clifford spaces); in the physics of D-branes and covariant Matrix models by [137] and within the context of Lie algebra stability by [48].
3 Modified Newtonian Dynamics from Phase Space Relativity
has been studied in [52] and its relationship to modified Newtonian dynamics and fractals by [54], [3].
Having displayed the cosmological features behind the proper-four forces equality (3.10) that relates the maximal/minimal acceleration in terms of the minimal/large scales and which is compatible with Eddington-Dirac's large number coincidences we shall derive next the modified Newtonian dynamics of a test particle which emerges from the Born's Dual Phase Space Relativity principle.
The modified radial acceleration which encodes the modified Newtonian dynamics and which violates the equivalence principle (since the acceleration now depends on the mass of the test particle m) is
4 Modified Newtonian Dynamics resulting from Yang's Noncommutative Spacetime Algebra
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