recently showed that MI induces a subliminal motor command
that modulates the influence of the afferent input to motoneurons at the spinal level, via primary afferent depolarizing interneurons.
To simulate robot jump, during the teleoperation running mode, we inject constant motor command
(can be zero or nonzero but within the valid range of motor's DAC command) to the shoulder joint at a specified time period.
This is a pre-programed motor command
in the knee flexor muscle group acting as a preparatory mechanism for immediately responding to loading at impact.
Although the activities of some neurons in the motor cortex will reflect movement parameters, most neural activities will be an internal process to generate the motor commands
Corollary discharges diverge from the descending motor commands
and are sent to the sensory cortex, evoking perceptual signals of exertion that are consciously monitored.
"Step motor command
signal"--subsystem having the structure shown in figure 11.
THEN issue a motor command
to the manual system to press enter AND issue a motor command
to the visual system to move the eyes to (200,50) AND note that step land-fo-5 is completed.
In the last decade a wide range of candidate cost functions have been proposed, including jerk (rate of change of acceleration), change in joint torque and change in motor command
. Indeed, the motor system may choose between a range of cost functions (Rosenbaum, Meulenbrook, & Vaughan, 1996).
Movement is potentially modified in many ways--proprioceptive input, competitive motor require ments (most obviously "perform or protect"), motor planning, the motor command
, spinal modulation by incoming nociception, the executor "organs" themselves (i.e., muscles), or a combination of any of these (see Wolpert and Ghahramani ).
"The motor command
to the muscle is sent in two different directions - in one direction, to trigger the desired muscular contraction and in the other, to inform the brain that the command has actually been passed on to the musculature," Chiara Pivetta, first author of the publication, said.
It does this by comparing the desired position from the path generator at any given moment with the actual motor position, and applying a continuous correcting motor command
Key search words included, vibration and whole-body vibration; which were used in combination with spinal reflexes, muscle tuning, neuromuscular (motor unit firing frequency, synchronisation, intermuscular coordination) and central motor command
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