The comparison at +00 h (i.e., analysis time) is biased toward the observation for experiment MRAR+VL (MRAR with vertical lidar), because these observations were used in the assimilation.
A positive impact with MRAR Mode-S and profiling lidar was found, which was present up to 60 min in the NWP model.
Berre, 2015: Impact of new aircraft observations Mode-S MRAR in a meso-scale NWP model.
Measurement system Reference Scanning lidar (glide path) Research aircraft Scanning lidar (volume) Lidar profiler Scanning radar Scanning lidar Mode-S EHS Lidar profiler Mode-S MRAR Lidar profiler Measurement system Bias [sigma] (m [s.sup.-1]) (m [s.sup.-1]) Scanning lidar (glide path) 0.57 0.51 Scanning lidar (volume) 0.11 1.63 Scanning radar 0.8 1.18 Mode-S EHS 1.82 2.49 Mode-S MRAR 0.19 0.58 TABLE 4.
MR arthrography (MRAr) was performed on one of the cadaveric wrists by intra-articular injection of the contrast media (10 ml liquid mixture of 0.5 ml Gd-DTPA [Beijing Beilu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Beijing, China] with 100 ml normal saline + 5 ml iohexol [Beijing Beilu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.]) with T1 fat-saturated (T1-FS) imaging in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes (TR/TE: 350 ms/34 ms).
What is more, UT, UL ligaments, and the volar and dorsal capsules could be visualized more clearly on sagittal T1 FS images with MRAr [Figure 4].
MRAr will show some fine anatomy more clearly, improve the diagnosis of the lesion within the joint, and increase the sensitivity and accuracy of diagnosis.[sup],, In our study, we carried out the direct MRAr in one specimen, and in the sagittal plane, we could find the UT, UL ligaments, and the volar and dorsal capsules more clearly than conventional MRI.
Recently, the implementation of new observations has been investigated, for instance, the aircraft-derived Mode-S MRAR (Strajnar 2012; Strajnar et al.
(1) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A); Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B); atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs); Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT); Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS); Cross-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS); High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS); Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI); Mode-S meteorological routine air report (MRAR); and Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI).