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MYODMyogenic Differentiation Antigen
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"We started off by connecting the Hesl and MyoD to proteins to light-emitting proteins so that we could better track their development," said Ines Lahmann, the study's lead author.
In addition, other myoblast markers, Myf5, MyoD, MyoG, FHL1, and NFATcl, were expressed in horse muscle cells, indicating that the cell population possesses myogenic features observed in other mammals; however, further investigation is required (Figure 2C).
(2005) NF-kappa B-mediated MyoD decay during muscle wasting requires nitric oxide synthase mRNA stabilization, HuR protein, and nitric oxide release.
If this function is not required, satellite stem cells remain in an nonproliferating quiescent state (Figure 7) that is characterized by Pax7 [136], a known satellite stem cell marker, the repression of the growing factor HMGA2, and the absence of both the proliferating index Ki67 and the differentiation-related factor MyoD [137].
Similarly, increases in mRNA expression of HGF, Pax7, MyoD, and myogenin were suppressed by Precon, suggesting that Precon reduced the degree of muscle damage, negating the need for muscle regeneration.
Direct reprogramming was first reported in 1987 when a single cDNA encoding MyoD was transfected into fibroblasts converting them into muscle myoblasts [5].
In skeletal muscles, Wnt/[beta]-catenin signalling (1) increases muscle-specific myogenic transcription factor, (2) decreases PPAR-[gamma]-related adipogenesis and C/EBP [alpha] expression, (3) converts type 2 skeletal muscle fibers into type 1 muscle fibers, (4) decreases c-myc-mediated activation of p27, which decreases myogenesis and increases adipogenesis, and (5) activates mitogenic factor 5 (Myf 5), which in turn activates myoblast determination protein D (myoD) [72,73].
McCarthy et al., "CLOCK and BMAL1 regulate MyoD and are necessary for maintenance of skeletal muscle phenotype and function," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.
Two of them, Pax7 [60] and MyoD [61], are master muscle differentiation regulatory genes; the third is a-SMA, which is known as a myofibroblast cell marker.
Duda, "TNF inhibits myogenesis and downregulates the expression of myogenic regulatory factors myoD and myogenin," European Journal of Cell Biology, vol.